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College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management

Faculty and Staff

Stephen Shapiro, Ph.D.

Title: Associate Chair / Professor
MSEM Program Director
Department: Department of Sport and Entertainment Management
College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management
Phone: 803-777-0783
Fax: 803-777-8788
Office: Close-Hipp 766
LinkedIn: My LinkedIn profile
Stephen Shapiro, associate professor, sport and entertainment management, interim director of graduate studies, director of international graduate programs


Ph.D., Sport Administration, University of Northern Colorado
M.S., Management, University of Central Florida
B.A., Advertising and Public Relations, University of Central Florida


Stephen Shapiro joined the Department of Sport and Entertainment Management in fall 2017. Shapiro previously worked for nine years as a faculty member in the sport management program at Old Dominion University. He served as graduate program coordinator from 2012 to 2017. Shapiro received his doctorate in sport administration with a doctoral minor in statistics from the University of Northern Colorado. He received his Master of Science in management and Bachelor of Arts in advertising and public relations from the University of Central Florida.

Shapiro's research interests are focused in the areas of ticket pricing and consumer behavior. Specific research topics include dynamic ticket pricing in sport, consumer behavior within the ticket purchase process, factors affecting price and demand for the sport product, sport gambling, attitudes and sport consumption in college athletics, and fantasy sport consumer behavior. Shapiro's research has been published in highly ranked sport management journals such as the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, Sport Marketing Quarterly, the International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, and the Journal of Gambling Studies.

Based on this scholarly productivity, Shapiro was awarded research fellow for the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM, 2013), the Sport Marketing Association (SMA, 2016), and the College Sport Research Institute (CSRI, 2022). He served as the editor of Sport Marketing Quarterly (SMQ) from 2016-2018 and currently serves on editorial boards for SMQ, the Journal of Global Sport Management, and the Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics.

Shapiro has also secured more than $497,000 in grant funding from national and international organizations such as the Charlotte Hornets, FC Cincinnati, International Cricket Council, Norfolk Tourism Research Foundation, Virginia Tourism Corporation, and the National Kidney Foundation of Florida.

Shapiro was awarded the Garnet Apple for Teaching Innovation in 2023 and was a Pipeline for Academy Leaders Fellow in 2021-2022.

Prior to obtaining his doctorate, Shapiro was an assistant softball coach for the University of Central Florida for five years (2001-2005).

In the Media

Honors / Awards

  • University of South Carolina, Garnet Apple Teaching Innovation Award, 2023
  • College Sport Research Institute – Research Fellow, 2022
  • University of South Carolina, Pipeline for Academy Leaders Fellow, 2021-2022
  • University of South Carolina College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management, Patricia G. Moody Distinguished Researcher and Scholar Award, 2021
  • University of South Carolina College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management, Brian J. and Linda L. Mihalik Outstanding Global Scholar Award, 2021
  • Sport Marketing Association Research Fellow, 2016
  • Old Dominion University Darden College of Education Service Award, 2016
  • Sport Marketing Association Conference - Best Professional Paper, 2010, 2013, and 2016
  • Old Dominion University Most Collaborative Grant Award, 2014
  • North American Society for Sport Management Research Fellow, 2013
  • Old Dominion University Shining Star Faculty Award, 2009

Research Interests

  • Ticket pricing
  • Consumer behavior
  • Sport Gambling
  • Fantasy sport participation and consumption

Courses Taught

  • SPTE 380 – Sport and Entertainment Marketing
  • SPTE 410 – Sport and Entertainment in Popular Culture
  • SPTE 440 – SPTE Business and Finance
  • SPTE 655 – Sport and Social Media
  • SPTE 760 – Principles of Sport and Entertainment Marketing
  • SPTE 860 – Doctoral Seminar in Sport Marketing

Professional Affiliations and/or Consulting Experiences

  • North American Society for Sport Management
  • Sport Marketing Association
  • College Sport Research Institute

Research Publications

* Ph.D. student

*Dastrup, R., Koesters, T., Shapiro, S. L., & Park, S. (2023). “Why can’t we be friends”? An examination of academic and industry alignment in sport sponsorship, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 35(1), 169-185.

Lee, Y., Morse, A., Hyun, M., Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2023). Does time matter? How Major League Baseball secondary market sellers make ticket pricing decisions. Sport, Business, and Management, 13(3), 397-415.

Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, J., & (2023). A segmentation analysis of sports bettors by involvement. Journal of Sport Management, 37(3), 203-216.

Popp, N., Simmons, J., Shapiro, S. L., & Watanabe, N. (2023). Predicting ticket holder no-shows: Examining differences between reported and actual attendance at college football games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 32, 3-17.

Marquez, A., Cianfrone, B. A., & Shapiro, S. L. (2022). All-Inclusive v. partitioned pricing in sports: The effects of pricing format on ticket purchasers’ response. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 31, 16-32.

Gomez, E., Ridinger, L., Hill, E., & Shapiro, S. L. (2021). An examination of motivations, attitudes and charitable intentions for running in a charity event. Journal of Amateur Sport, 7(2), 25-50.

*Morehead, C., Shapiro, S. L., Reams, L. McEvoy, C., & Madden, T. (2021). A qualitative exploration of the ticket-pricing process used in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 14, 547-573.

*Won, M., & Shapiro, S. L. (2021). Analysis of price bundling and framing: The impact of availability and discount messaging. Sport, Business, and Management: An International Journal, 11(5), 493-514.

*Won, M., & Shapiro, S. L. (2021). An examination of partitioned pricing and the influence of culture and familiarity on sport consumer behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 30, 163-177.

Shapiro, S. L., Schulte, A., Popp, N., & Bates, B. (2021). An examination of secondary ticket market pricing trends and determinants at the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision level. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 21, 194-213.

Popp, N., Simmons, J., Shapiro, S. L., Greenwell, C., & McEvoy, C. (2020). An analysis of attributes impacting consumer online ticket purchases in a dual-market environment. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 29, 177-188.

Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, J., & Dwyer, B. (2020). An examination of consumer reactance to sports gambling and daily fantasy sport regulatory restrictions. Sport Management Review, 23(5), 797-809.

*Evans, K., Shapiro, S. L., & Brown, M. T. (2020). External congruence and its effect on sport sponsorship recall in pest control, pizza, and apparel categories. International Journal of Sport Management, 21(2), 131-150.

Watanabe, N. M., Yan, G., Pegoraro, A., & Shapiro, S. L. (2019). Does rivalry matter? An analysis of sport consumer interest on social media. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 20(4), 646-665.

Yan, G., Watanabe, N., Shapiro, S. L., Naraine, & M., Hull, K. (2019). Unfolding the Twitter scene of the 2017 UEFA Champions League final: An analysis of sport digital networks. European Sport Management Quarterly, 19(4), 419-436.

*O’Hallarn, B., Shapiro, S. L., Wittkower, D. E., Ridinger, L. L., & Hambrick, M. E. (2019). A model for the generation of public sphere-like activity in sport-themed Twitter hashtags. Sport Management Review, 22(3), 407-418.

Dwyer, B., Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2019). To play or not to play? An analysis of disposition, gambling, and daily fantasy sport. Journal of Sport Management, 33(3), 174-188.

Shapiro, S. L., Reams, L., & So, K. (2019). Is it worth the price? The role of perceived financial risk, identification, and perceived value in purchasing pay-per-view broadcasts of combat sports. Sport Management Review, 22(2), 235-246.

Drayer, J., Dwyer, B., & Shapiro, S. L. (2019). Fantasy millionaires: Identifying at-risk consumers based on motivations. Journal of Sport Management, 33(1), 37-49.

Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2018). Daily fantasy football and self-reported problem behavior in the United States. Journal of Gambling Studies, 34, 689-707.

Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2018). Paying the price: Examining consumer response to pricing strategy. Sport & Entertainment Review, 4(2), 27-32.

*O’Hallarn, B., Shapiro, S. L., & Pegoraro, A. (2018). Hashmoney: Exploring Twitter hashtag use as a secondary ticket market price determinant. International Journal of Sport Management & Marketing, 18(3), 199-219.

Hill, E., Posey, T., Gomez, E., & Shapiro, S. L. (2018). Student readiness: Examining the impact of a university outdoor orientation program. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 10(2), 109-123.

Drayer, J., Shapiro, S. L., & Dwyer, B. (2018). Worth the price of admission? The mediating effect of perceived value on ticket purchase intention. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 27, 44-57.

Shapiro, S. L., DeSchriver, T. D., & Rascher, D. A. (2017). The Beckham effect: Examining the longitudinal impact of a star performer on league marketing, novelty, and scarcity. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17(5), 610-634.

*Morehead, C. A., Shapiro, S. L., Madden, T. M., Reams, L., & McEvoy, C. D. (2017). Athletic ticket pricing in the collegiate environment: An agenda for research. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 10(1), 83-102.

Warner, S., Sparvero, E., Shapiro, S. L. & Anderson, A. (2017). Yielding healthy community with sport? Journal of Sport for Development, 5(8), 41-52.

Reams, L., & Shapiro, S. L. (2017). Who’s the main attraction? Examining star power as a determinant of UFC pay-per-view demand. European Sport Management Quarterly, 17(2), 132-151.

*Collins, D., Heere, B., Shapiro, S. L., Ridinger, L., & Wear, H. (2016). The displaced fan: The importance of new media and community identification for maintaining team identity with your former hometown team. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(5), 655-674.

Shapiro, S. L., Dwyer, B., & Drayer, J. (2016). Are you playing fair? Examining the role of fairness in sport consumer ticket purchase decisions. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 25(4), 227-240.

Havard, C., Shapiro, S. L., & Ridinger, L. L. (2016). Who’s our rival now?  Investigating the influence of a new intercollegiate football program on rivalry perceptions. Journal of Sport Behavior, 39(4), 385-408.

DeSchriver, T. D., Rascher, D. A., & Shapiro, S. L. (2016). If we build it, will you come? Examining the effect of expansion teams and soccer-specific stadiums on Major League Soccer attendance. Sport, Business, and Management: An International Journal, 6(2), 205-227.

Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, J., & Dwyer, B. (2016). Examining consumer perceptions of demand-based ticket pricing in spectator sport. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 25(1), 34-46.

*Morehead, C., O’Hallarn, B., & Shapiro, S. L. (2016). Tell me how you really feel: Analyzing debate, desire, and disinhibition on online sports news stories. International Journal of Sport Communication, 9(1), 13-35.

Parris, D., Shapiro, S. L., Welty-Peachey, J., Bowers, J., & Bouchet, A. (2015). More than competition: Exploring stakeholder identities at a grassroots cause-related sporting event. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 12, 115-140.

Drayer, J., Frascella, V. P., Shapiro, S. L., & Mahan, J. (2014). Examining the effect of legitimacy-building strategies on secondary ticket market firm performance. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(5), 464-484.

Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2014). An examination of dynamic ticket pricing and secondary market price determinants in Major League Baseball. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 145-159.

Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, J., & Dwyer, B. (2014). Exploring fantasy baseball consumer behavior: Examining the relationship between identification, fantasy participation, and consumption. Journal of Sport Behavior, 37(1), 77-93.

*O’Hallarn, B, & Shapiro, S. L. (2014). #NBCFail: A qualitative review of the shared experience as a social movement. First Monday, 19(1).

McEvoy, C. D., Morse, A. L., & Shapiro, S. L. (2013). Factors influencing collegiate athletic department revenues. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 6, 249-267.

Dwyer, B., Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2013). Proceed to checkout? The impact of time in advanced ticket purchase decisions. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(3), 166-180.

Shapiro, S. L., Ridinger, L. L., & Trail, G. T. (2013). The impact of a new college football program: An analysis of spectator consumption behavior, identification, and future behavioral intentions. Journal of Sport Management, 27(2), 130-145.

Drayer, J., Dwyer, B., & Shapiro, S. L. (2013). Examining the impact of league entry fees on online fantasy sport participation and league consumption. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(3), 339-357.

Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2012). A new age of demand-based pricing: An examination of dynamic ticket pricing and secondary market prices in Major League Baseball. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 532-546.

Parris, D., Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2012). Developing a pricing strategy for the Los Angeles Dodgers. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 21(4), 256-264.

Drayer, J., Shapiro, S. L., & Lee, S. (2012). Dynamic ticket pricing in sport: A conceptual approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 21(3), 184-194.

Shapiro, S. L., DeSchriver, T. D., & Rascher, D. A. (2012). Factors affecting the price of luxury suites in major North American sports facilities. Journal of Sport Management, 26(3), 249-257.

Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2011). Segmenting motivation: An analysis of fantasy baseball motives and mediated sport consumption. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 20(3), 129-137.

Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2011). An examination into the factors that influence consumers’ perceptions of value. Sport Management Review, 14(4), 389-398.

Warner, S., Shapiro, S. L., Ridinger, L. L., & Dixon, M. A. (2011). The football factor: Creating a sense of community on campus. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 4, 236-256.

Shapiro, S. L., & Dwyer, B. (2011). Web-based survey applications: A comprehensive review of providers and best practices for sport management researchers. International Journal of Sport Management, 12, 1-26.

Shapiro, S. L. & Ridinger, L. L. (2011). An examination of donor involvement and gender in college athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 20(1), 22-32.

Shapiro, S. L. (2010). Does service matter? An examination of donor perceptions of service quality in college athletics. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19(3), 154-165.

Shapiro, S. L., Giannoulakis, C., Drayer, J., & Wang, C. S. (2010). An examination of athletic alumni giving behavior: Development of the former student-athlete donor constraint scale. Sport Management Review, 13(3), 283-295.

Drayer, J., Shapiro, S. L., Dwyer, B., Morse, A. L., & White, J. (2010). The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL consumption: A qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 13(2), 129-141.

Shapiro, S. L., Drayer, D., Dwyer, B., & Morse, A. L. (2009). Punching a ticket to the big dance: A critical analysis of at-large selection to the NCAA Division I men’s basketball tournament. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 2, 46-63.

 Shapiro, S. L. & Giannoulakis, C. (2009). An exploratory investigation of donor constraints for former student-athletes. International Journal of Sport Management, 10(2), 207-225.

Drayer, J., & Shapiro, S. L. (2009). Value determination in the secondary ticket market: A quantitative analysis of the NFL Playoffs. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 18(1), 5-13.

Morse, A. L., Shapiro, S. L., McEvoy, C. D., & Rascher, D. A. (2008). The effects of roster turnover on demand in the National Basketball Association. International Journal of Sport Finance, 3(1), 8-18.

Book Chapters

Ridinger, L. L., & Shapiro, S. L. (2016). Creating community and building brand equity: Is football the answer? In B. Pitts, Case studies in sport marketing (2nd ed.). Fitness Information Technology.

Shapiro, S. L. (2016). Fiscal responsibility. In G. Bernstein, Nonprofit recreation and sport organizations: Principles and practices in leadership and management. Sentia Publishing.

Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2016). Fantasy sports and mediated fandom. In N. Bowman, J. Spinda, & J. Sanderson (Eds.), Fantasy sports and the changing sports media industry: Media, players, and society (pp. 177-198). Lexington Books.

Shapiro, S. L., & Dwyer, B. (2015). Financial operations. In E. A. Weight & R. H. Zullo, Administration of intercollegiate athletics (pp. 143-172). Human Kinetics.

Shapiro, S. L., & Dwyer, B. (2015). Sports promotion, pricing, and packaging. In G. Bernstein, The principles of sport marketing (pp. 63-82). Sagamore Publishers.

Challenge the conventional. Create the exceptional. No Limits.